Easy Way to Access Environment Variables Using Python
You can access the full of environment variables using,Environment variables are accessing by os.environ,you can set an environment variable that i would like to access in my Python application
Environment variables are file/folder locations or other values which will be used from any python script on your system. Sometimes you’ll must get or set environment variables in Python. during this article, we are going to find out how to access environment variables in Python.
How to Access Environment Variables in Python
For the steps to access environment variables in Python.
1. How to Access Environment Variables
Now you access environment variables using Python os system module. The commands are access environment variables ‘HOME’ and its print the value.
import os print(os.environ['HOME'])
Basically, os.environ returns a key-value dictionary consisting of all environment variables as keys together with their values.
There are multiple environment variables in every system, additionally to HOME, and you’ll access them by specifying them in your command as shown below. Replace KEY below together with your environment variable’s name.
# using get will return `None` if a key is not present rather than raise a `KeyError` print(os.environ.get('KEY'))
The above command will return None if key’s not present, rather than raising a KeyError.
If you don’t want None to be returned, you’ll be able to specify the default value to be returned, using getenv() function. Replace default_value with the default value you wish to be returned.
# os.getenv is equivalent, and can also give a default value instead of `None` print(os.getenv('KEY', default_value)) OR print(os.environ.get('KEY', default_value))
2. Check if Environment Variable Exists
If you would like to test if environment variable exists you’ll be able to use the ‘in’ operator for this purpose, even as you check if a key exists in Python dictionary. Here is an example to test if HOME variable exists in environment variable.
import os if 'HOME' in os.environ: print(os.environ['HOME'])
3. Set Environment
In this short article, we’ve learnt the way to access environment variables in python. Now we’ll study a way to set their values. you’ll be able to set their values even as you set a key-value pair in python dictionary.
Here may be a simple example to line HOME environment variable.
import os os.environ['HOME']='/home/ubuntu/python' print(os.environ['HOME'])
Please note you wish to supply a string value after you set an environment variable. If you provide variety you may get a mistake. the subsequent code will throw a mistake.
import os os.environ['HOME']=123
You can access the environment variables using,Environment variables are accessed through os.environ,I set an environment variable that i would like to access in my Python application
import os print(os.environ['HOME'])
Or you will see the list of all the environment variables using this syntax:
For sometimes you need to see the complete list!
# using get will return `None` if a key is not present rather than raise a `KeyError` print(os.environ.get('KEY_THAT_MIGHT_EXIST')) # os.getenv is equivalent, and can also give a default value instead of `None` print(os.getenv('KEY_THAT_MIGHT_EXIST', default_value))
The Environment Variables Python default installation location on Windows is C:\Python. If you need to find out when running the python:
import sys print(sys.prefix)
To set and find environment variables in Python you’ll just use the os module:,Thanks plenty Rhett for yout post. I actually was searching for a technique that mixes the usage of a .env and therefore the environment variables.,Now that you just have your environment variables stored in a very .env file, you’ll be able to access them in your Python code like this:,There is good out of the box Python solution called pycrosskit. it’ll create environment variables that are persistent both for Linux and Windows.
To set and find environment variables in Python you’ll just use the os module:
import os # Set environment variables os.environ['API_USER'] = 'username' os.environ['API_PASSWORD'] = 'secret' # Get environment variables USER = os.getenv('API_USER') PASSWORD = os.environ.get('API_PASSWORD') # Getting non-existent keys FOO = os.getenv('FOO') # None BAR = os.environ.get('BAR') # None BAZ = os.environ['BAZ'] # KeyError: key does not exist.
Using Decouple Module
First install the module of Python Decouple in your local environment.
$ pip install python-decouple
Once installed, create a .env go into the basis of your project which you’ll be able to then open up to feature your environment variables.
$ touch .env # create a new .env file $ nano .env # open the .env file in the nano text editor
You can add your python environment variables like this type:
Now that you simply have your environment variables stored during a .env file, you’ll access them in your Python code like this
from decouple import config API_USERNAME = config('USER') API_KEY = config('KEY')
How to Set Environment Variables in Python,When to Use Python Environment Variables,How to Get Environment Variables With Python,How to Use dotenv Manage Environment Variables
import os print(os.environ)
The primary things of want to grasp is the current value of specific environment variables in your current session. For that, there’s os.environ.get(). This retrieves the worth of an environment variable currently assail your system.
os.environ.get('USER') >>> 'Alice'
If there is no environment variables matching the key, it’ll return the output of ‘None’:
os.environ.get('Nonexistent-variable') >>> None
You can also set environment variables to new strings. this is often exhausted the same manner to Python dictionaries. It’s important to notice that this changes the environment variable during this session. In other words, changing the environment variable here won’t affect the environment variable anywhere else.
os.environ['USER'] = 'Bob'
If you wish to clear one environment variable within the session you’ll use os.environ.pop() with the key and if you would like to clear all environment variables you’ll be able to use os.environ.clear()
Python-dotenv reads the full environment variables from a given file named .env.
api-token = "abcdef_123456"
You can created and placed with the same folder as your Python file and the python os environ environment variables:
From dotenv import load_dotenv load_dotenv() import os token = os.environ.get("api-token")
Now you can Once the .env file is imported, you’ll access th environment variables using any of the methods shown above.,If you’re in an exceedingly prompt window, you’ll be able to set an environment variable using the set command:,Do you have the other ways to figure with environment variables? I’d like to know!,I hope this text was useful to assist you understand a way to use environment variables to configure your Python projects.
>>> import os >>> user = os.environ['USER'] >>> user 'miguel'
A better thanks to get the environment variable is to use the dictionary get() function. we are able to also specify the default value if the environment variable isn’t present.,Since os.environ may be a dictionary object, we are able to get the particular environment variable value using the key.,We can use the “in” operator to test if an environment variable exists or not.,However, this fashion to urge the environment variable will raise KeyError if the environment variable isn’t present.
import os # printing environment variables print(os.environ)
Using python-dotenv Module:
If you’re fixing your variables within the bash session, you’ll be able to access them easily via a code snippet such as:,You just export them to be visible in your current bash session — meaning until you’re using the terminal without closing, you’ll be ready to access through your code, all the variables you’ve set.,If you’ve taken the second route and set your env variables through the .env file, you’ll be able to instead use a singular method to access them in your code.,Until now, we’ve seen how to line our secret variables in two ways — through our bash session and as a separate file. Now, let’s see the way to access them for using in our Python code.
Install the package this command of your virtual environment python:
pip install python-dotenv
Now that you simply simply know the way environment variables in Python are populated, let’s take a glance at how to access them.,To view all environment variables:,Environment variables in Python are accessed using the os.environ object.,Awesome work! Now you recognize the thanks to use environment variables in Python for application config and secrets.
# 1. Standard way import os # os.environ['VAR_NAME'] # 2. Import just the environ object from os import environ # environ['VAR_NAME'] # 3. Rename the `environ` to env object for more concise code from os import environ as env # env['VAR_NAME']